Manifesto of Verona
Benito Mussolini and Fascism were overthrown in 1943 by the king of Italy and traitors within the National Fascist Party. Those that remained loyal reestablished themselves in northern Italy under the Italian Social Republic. One of their first acts was to make official their beliefs and to create a guiding document for the new country. Essential to this was to recognize that like any political system problems will develop over time and Fascism was not immune to this. There was too much compromising with the Capitalist class and landowning elites. Economic reform meant to correct the injustices of the old liberal regime took too long to materialize. It was time for Fascism to go back to its roots and emphasize the economic and social aspects of its belief system.
1. That a constitutional assembly be convened in order to declare the demise of the monarchy, openly condemn the treasonous last king, proclaim the social republic, and name its head.
2. That this constitutional assembly be made up of representatives of all labor unions and administrative districts and also include representatives from invaded provinces in the form of delegations of evacuees and refugees residing in free territories; it also recognizes the representatives of combatants and prisoners of war and those of Italians abroad; those of Judicial Officers, University and every other corps or institution whose participation contribute to make the Constitutional Assembly the synthesis of all National values.
3. The Republican Constitution should ensure to citizens, soldiers, workers and contributors the right to control and responsibly criticize the acts of public administration. Every five years the citizen will be called to decide on the election of the Chief of the Republic. No citizen, arrested in flagrance or stopped for preventive measures, shall be held beyond seven days, without an order from a judicial authority. Except in case of flagrance, an order from judicial authority shall occur for domicile persecutions too. The Judicial power, shall act with full independence, in the exercise of its functions.
4. Both the negative electoral experience already made by Italy, and the partially negative experience of a too strictly hierarchical method of election, contribute to a solution which conciliates the opposite needs. A mixed system for example of popular election of representatives in the Parliament and election of Ministers by the Chief of the Republic and of the Government, and in the Party, elections of the Fascio, except for ratifications, and election of the national Directory by the Duce seems to be the most advisable.
5. The organization responsible for the education of the people to political problems is unique. In the Party, order of fighters and believers, an organism of absolute political purity, worthy of being the custodian of the revolutionary idea, shall be created. Its distinctive (tessera) is not required for any employment or charge.
6. The religion of the Republic is the Roman Catholic Apostolic one. Every other religion, which does not oppose the laws, is respected.
7. Those belonging to Jew race are foreigners. During this war, they belong to enemy nationality.
8. The unity, the independence, the territorial integrity of the Fatherland in the sea and alpine borders “marked by nature, sacrificed by blood and History; threatened by the Enemy with invasion and with the promises of the Government exiled in London. A second key aim will be recognition of the fact that a 45 million strong population living in an area that can’t sustain it has certain indispensable and vital space needs.This foreign policy will also strive for the creation of a European Community made up of all those nations that accept the following principles:
A. Elimination from our continent of the centuries long British intrigues.
B. Abolition of the internal capitalist system and combat against world plutocracies
C. Exploitation of Africa’s natural resources for the benefit of Europeans as well as natives, with full respect for those people, particularly Muslim ones, who have shaped themselves into civilized nations.
9. That the foundation and main goal of the Social Republic be work, manual, technical, intellectual – in all its manifestation.
10. That the State guarantee private property, which is the fruit of individual labor and savings as well as extension of the human personality. Private property, however cannot have a disintegrative effect on the physical and moral personality of other individuals by way of the exploitation of their labor.
11. That in the domain of the national economy the State’s sphere of action encompass everything that extends beyond individual interest out into the domain of collective interests, whether due to scale or function Public services and, in most cases, defense industries must be managed by the State through state controlled corporations.
12. That in every factory (whether industrial, private, State-controlled, or State-owned) representatives of technicians and workers collaborate closely – to the point of having direct knowledge of the factory’s management – in setting fair wages and in equitably distributing profits, between reserve funds, stockholder dividends, and worker profit shares In some factories this measure will be implemented by expanding the power of the existing factory commissions. In others, the current management will be replaced by a managing council made up of technicians, workers, and a state representative. In others still, a union – controlled cooperative will be set up.
13. That in the domain of agriculture production, landowner’s freedom of enterprise be curbed whenever and wherever the spirit of enterprise is lacking. Expropriations of idle farms may lead to them being parceled out among field workers (who thereby become farmer - landowners). Similarly, badly managed factories may be transformed into union – or State controlled cooperatives, depending on the needs of the agricultural economy.Since current laws already provide for these sorts of measures, the party and various trade unions are now hard at work on their implementation.
14. That farmer – landowners, craftsmen, professionals, and artists be fully entitled to pursue their vocations individually, as a family or other nucleus. However they are subject to legal requirements governing mandatory contributions to government stockpiles or to regulation of fees for services.
15. That homeownership be treated not just as an extension of property rights but as a right. The party’s platform proposes the creation of a national agency for national housing that will absorb the existing institute and enhance its effectiveness. Its aim is to make homeownership available to families of all categories of workers via the construction of new homes or the repurchase of existing ones. To this end, the general principle of rent payments ought to go to the purchase of a home, once capital and interest have been paid in full, must be adopted.The first duty of this agency will be to address the war’s detrimental effects on housing by expropriating and distributing empty buildings, and by erecting temporary structures.
16. That workers automatically become members of the union regulating the category which they belong, but that this membership must not preclude transfer to another union if all requirements are met. All the trade unions are gathered under the umbrella of a single confederation composing all workers, technicians, and professionals (but excluding land – owners who are neither managers nor technicians). This umbrella organization will be called the General Confederation of Work, Technics, and Art.Like other workers, employees of State-owned industries or public services are integrated into unions as a function of their category.The imposing complex of social welfare institutions created by the Fascist regime over the past twenty years remains intact. Consecrated by the 1927 labor charter, its spirit will inform all future developments.
17. That the party considers a salary adjustment for all workers an urgent necessity. This can be effected by adopting a nationwide minimum wage (with prompt regional adjustments). The need is particularly great among lower and middle-echelon workers, both in the public and private sectors. Part of the salary should be paid in foodstuffs (at official prices) so that this measure not prove ineffective or harmful for all parties concerned. This can be achieved through means of cooperatives and factory stores, by expanding the Proviida’s responsibilities and by expropriating stores that have broken the law and by placing them under State or Cooperative management. This is the best way to contribute to a stabilization of prices and of the Lira’s value as well as to the market’s recovery. As concern’s the black market, speculators must be placed under the authority of special courts and be made subject to the death penalty, just like traitor and defeatists.
18. That with this preamble to the constitutional assembly the Party offers proof not only that it is reaching out to the people but also with the people.As for the Italian people, it must realize that it has only one way to defend its past, present, and future conquests: to reject the slavelike invasion of the Anglo -American plutocracies, confirmed by a thousand signs, is to make the lives of Italians more modest and miserable. There is only one way for us to accomplish all of our social goals: to fight, to work, to triumph.